We present this Information and
its Links as a Service to our readers... Its inclusion should not
be construed as the Authors'
or the Relays' endorsement of our Beliefs... or as our endorsement of theirs.. the Truth will stand on its own Merit!
3 Section 640d-5(d) of the Settlement Act provides:
In any partition of the surface rights to the joint use area, the lands shall, insofar as is practicable, be equal in acreage and quality: Provided, That if such partition results in a lesser amount of acreage, or value, or both to one tribe such differential shall be fully and finally compensable to such tribe by the other tribe. The value of the land for the 18 purposes of this subsection shall be based on not less than its value with improvements and its grazing capacity fully restored: Provided further, That, in the determination of compensation for any such differential, the Federal Government shall pay any difference between the value of the particular land involved in its existing state and the value of such land in a fully restored state which results from damage to the land which the District Court finds attributable to a failure of the Federal Government to provide protection where such protection is or was required by law or by the demands of the trust relationship.
and its grazing capacity fully restored." S 640d-5(d). The district court determined the land's worth with its grazing capacity fully restored and with only those improvements that, as described by the district court, were necessary to restore the grazing potential to the maximum extent feasible. Presumably, the district court was referring to improvements such as roads, stream diversions, irrigation canals, and fences, which can help improve the land's grazing capacity.
On appeal, the Hopi assert that the district court wrongly interpreted the plain language of the statute calling for the valuation of "improvements." The Hopi argue that the district court should have valued all improvements, including hospitals, schools, churches, hogans, trading posts and other structures. The Hopi contend that these improvements all contribute to the value of the land as an Indian reservation. At trial, the Hopi expert agreed that the land should be appraised as an Indian reservation, with potential for, inter alia, agriculture, grazing, rural residential habitation and limited commercial enterprise. The Navajo's competing expert took the view that the land should be valued strictly as a cattle ranching operation and that most buildings were of no significance.
 The legislative history does little to answer the question of whose valuation is correct, as it refers to improvements without ever giving any indication of what type of improvements Congress contemplated. See, e.g., H.R. Rep. No. 909, 93rd Cong., 2d Sess. (1974); S. Rep. No. 1177, 93rd Cong. 2d Sess. (1974). Thus, we focus on the statute itself. The Navajo's valuation appears to do violence to the statutory language, for it ignores the Congressional directive to value "improvements." The district court's view that "improvements" should be limited to those necessary to restore the land to full grazing capacity also finds no support in the statute. Indeed, the statute's conjunctive structure suggests that an independent value should be assessed for "improvements" and for the land fully restored. Moreover,
Congress did not qualify the word "improvements; " the statute contains no express limitation on the type of improvements that can comprise the value of the partitioned land, or the purpose that the improvements must serve before they can be included in value.
 Nevertheless, we cannot add the full value of the buildings on the NPL to the value of the Navajo land, since most of the structures on the NPL are privately owned and are not part of the real property that was given to the Navajo Nation at partition. For example, the residences, primarily hogans or smaller structures, are owned and were paid for by individual Navajo. The same is true of the barns, sheds and corrals on the NPL. Moreover, even if these structures were not privately owned, they likely would have no appreciable value for owelty purposes, as the Hopi expert testified that the Hopi routinely demolish such structures once the Navajo have abandoned them.
The buildings on the NPL that have the most significant intrinsic value include schools and hospitals that belong to the United States and which, like the private residences, cannot be added directly to the value of the NPL because they were not partitioned to the Navajo. The same logic applies to churches and missions on the NPL, which are owned and managed by their respective religious organizations, and to structures erected on the NPL by third party entrepreneurs, such as the Peabody coal mining operation.
 The Hopi therefore alternatively contend that the district court should not value the improvements themselves, but rather the land's enhanced value because those improvements are on it. We believe this is the only interpretation of the statute that gives meaning to all of its terms and the one that best accords with Congressional intent. The district court concluded that "there is no competent evidence that the NPL had more improvements than the HPL which were necessary to restore the partitioned lands" because it had first (erroneously)
interpreted what "improvements" means. Consequently, the district court made no findings of fact regarding the contributing value of such things as schools, churches, and hospitals, to the value of the JUA. Nor did the court evaluate the methodology underlying the competing expert opinions about such contributing value. For this reason, we remand to the district court so that, guided by the correct interpretation of "improvements," it may consider and evaluate the conflicting expert opinions, and decide what owelty payment, if any, is due the Hopi based on the contributing value of all improvements.
C. Grazing capacity
Finally, we turn to the Navajo's Rule 59(e) motion, essentially a request for owelty, which the district court denied. The Navajo argue that because the district court accepted the opinion of an expert who opined that the HPL fully restored would support more grazing than the NPL fully restored, the district court was obligated to award the Navajo owelty relief. The district court, however, correctly noted in accepting that opinion that the same expert also testified to a 10 to 15 percent margin of error in his restored grazing capacity figures. Any difference between the HPL and the NPL was within that margin of error, and hence not statistically relevant. The district court did not err in denying the Rule 59(e) motion.
D. Judicial Estoppel
The doctrine of judicial estoppel bars a party from taking inconsistent positions in the same litigation. Morris v. State of Cal., 966 F.2d 448, 452 (9th Cir. 1991), cert. denied, 506 U.S. 831 (1992). The Navajo argue that the Hopi should be judicially estopped from seeking owelty because, prior to partition, the Hopi represented to the district court that the partition would not result in an owelty payment. We agree with the district court that this argument should be rejected because no court ever adopted the original Hopi position that
the partition would not result in an owelty payment. See Migard Tempering, Inc. v. Selas Corp., 902 F.2d 703 (9th Cir. 1990) (court must adopt position for judicial estoppel to apply).
E. Prejudgment interest
Our decision here is controlled by Hopi Tribe, 46 F.3d 908. There, we held that S 640d-17(e) of the Settlement Act, which allows the Hopi and the Navajo to sue one another for all remedies available in federal district court, allows for recovery of prejudgment interest. Although that decision was reached in the context of a suit for fair rental value of post partition use of the HPL by the Navajo, its logic applies with equal force in this context. Thus, we hold that the Hopi are entitled to prejudgment interest.
We therefore reverse the district court's denial of owelty and remand so that the Hopi may seek compensation for any disparity in value and prejudgment interest thereon. In all other respects, we affirm the district court's valuation of owelty.
IV. THE DAMAGES CASE, Appeals Nos. 94-17032, 95-15029
In the action giving rise to these appeals, the Hopi sued the Navajo and the United States to recover for damages to the HPL caused by Navajo overgrazing prior to the 1979 partition. The district court held that while the conduct creating liability occurred before the 1979 partition, the Hopi's compensation would be measured by the value of the lost grazing opportunity that the Hopi suffered after partition. In other words, the Hopi could recover the post-partition difference in
value between the land "as is" and the land fully restored. None of the parties contest this ruling on appeal.
 After trial, the district court awarded the Hopi $3,167,388.84 in damages against the Navajo, and absolved the United States of liability on the ground that the government made reasonable efforts to protect the range. Both the Hopi and the Navajo challenge the district court's calculations. Their contentions lack merit, except for the Hopi complaint that the district court wrongly denied damages for lost grazing opportunity on lands that the Hopi set aside for wildlife. Accordingly, we remand so the district court can add the value of that lost opportunity to the damages award. Further, the Navajo argue that the United States should be held liable for its failure to adequately protect the range. We agree with the district court's application of a reasonableness standard and affirm the district court's denial of liability on the basis of factual findings that are not challenged as clearly erroneous.
B. Calculation of damages
We turn first to the contentions concerning the district court's calculation of damages. The court computed the lost grazing opportunity using the following method. First, it estimated the fully restored annual grazing capacity of the HPL, finding that the HPL could be restored to excellent condition, but maintained as grazing land at only 75% of that condition. The Hopi challenge this finding on appeal. Second, the court determined that the HPL would be fully restored by 1995. Third, it estimated the total lost grazing capacity by calculating the difference between the fully restored grazing capacity and the actual annual grazing capacity for each year between 1979 and 1995, and then adding up the lost opportunity for each of these years. Fourth, it put a price on the lost grazing opportunity by referring, as in the use case, to adjusted private Arizona lease rates instead of federal lease rates. Finally, the
court discounted the future damages to their present value. These three steps are not challenged.
When estimating the total lost grazing capacity, the court made several adjustments that the Hopi challenge here. It decreased its estimate of the lost grazing opportunity by making "management cuts" to account for the Hopi practice of grazing cattle instead of sheep. Sheep typically graze all available forage. Cattle, by contrast, do not spontaneously graze hard-to-reach forage, prefer certain kinds of terrain over others, and tend to congregate within one-and-a-half miles of water sources. Because cattle use less acreage, reasoned the district court when making the cuts, the Hopi lost less grazing opportunity than they would have if they grazed sheep. In addition, the court excluded the lost opportunity associated with seven range units that the Hopi reserved for wildlife rather than livestock; we refer to these exclusions as the "vacant range cuts."
The district court also made an adjustment that the Navajo challenge on appeal: it increased its estimate of lost grazing to account for the eventual completion of water development programs on the HPL. Completion of these projects increases the acreage accessible to cattle, thereby increasing the Hopi's lost opportunity.
 We address the Hopi challenges first. The Hopi argue that the district court clearly erred in setting potential grazing capacity at 75%, rather than 100%, of excellent condition. However, several experts, including the Hopi's own, testified that the range could not be grazed at 100% of excellent condition. The court's finding was not clearly erroneous.
The Hopi also challenge the district court's management and vacant range cuts, arguing that the value of the lost grazing opportunity should be premised on the Hopi's right or opportunity to use the land, rather than how the Hopi actually used the land. They contend that the management cuts were
inappropriate because they could have fully utilized the HPL's grazing capacity by raising sheep instead of cattle. Further, they contend that the vacant range cuts were inappropriate because they could have used their seven vacant range units for grazing, but chose to leave that land fallow in order to accelerate the restoration process. The Navajo and the government respond that damages should be limited to real opportunity costs, which are tied to the Hopi's actual use of the land.
 The Restatement (Second) of TortsS 929, concerning Harm to Land from Past Invasions, provides the most relevant authority. It states that "[i]f one is entitled to judgment for harm to land resulting from past invasion . . ., the damages include compensation for . . . the loss of use of the land . . . ." Comment d to S 929 explains that "the plaintiff is entitled to recover for the past or prospective loss of use . . . as stated in S 931." (emphasis added). Comment b toS 931 provides:
The owner of the subject matter is entitled to recover as damages for the loss of the value of the use, at least the rental value of the . . . land during the period of deprivation. This is true even though the owner in fact has suffered no harm through the deprivation, as when he was not using the subject matter at the time . . . . The use to which . . . the land is commonly put . . . [is] to be taken into consideration as far as [it] bear[s] upon the value of the use to the owner or the rental value.
Restatement (Second) of Torts S 931 cmt. b (emphasis added). Thus, under the Restatement the value of the lost grazing opportunity turns on the type of use to which the land was "commonly put." The record reveals that the Hopi have "commonly put" the HPL to use for grazing cattle, rather than sheep. The district court made the management cuts to exclude forage that was inaccessible to cattle. This was in
accordance with the Restatement principle. We affirm the district court's management cuts.
 Our result differs with respect to the vacant range cuts. Unlike the acreage excluded by the management cuts, the land excluded under the vacant range cuts was accessible to cattle. Thus, the question is whether the Hopi should be awarded lost opportunity damages for land that could have been put to its common use, but which the Hopi chose not to use in the customary manner. We hold that the Hopi should be awarded damages for lost grazing opportunity on the vacant ranges. As the Restatement explains, an owner can suffer deprivation even if the owner "was not using the subject matter at the time." Id. We therefore reverse the district court's vacant range exclusion and remand for inclusion of the lost grazing opportunity on the vacant range units in the Hopi's damages award.
The Navajo argue that the upward adjustment for the future completion of water development programs constituted clear error because such programs will have no impact on Hopi grazing. They contend that the programs are saddled with inadequate funding and resistance from the Hopi themselves, preventing their development. However, the Navajo's own expert testified that these programs had made substantial progress, and the Hopi's expert recommended the upward adjustment. The court did not clearly err in following that recommendation.
 The Navajo also argue that the damages award was excessive. The Navajo and the Hopi both agree that the damages award, coupled with the post-partition rent, should equal the fully restored value of the HPL. In other words, they agree that the value of the HPL fully restored is equal to lost grazing opportunity (damages) plus available grazing opportunity (rent). The Navajo point out, however, that the payment they made in the rent case, Hopi Tribe, 46 F.3d 908, plus the damages award here, adds up to more than the worth of the fully
restored HPL. From this the Navajo conclude that the damages award is excessive. The Navajo's argument is without merit. The rent award included considerations unrelated to actual grazing, such as financial penalties for trespassing livestock. These penalties and other factors unrelated to grazing, rather than an excessive damages award, are what cause the appearance of overcompensation. The district court did not clearly err in finding that the damages award was not excessive.
Finally, the Navajo challenge the testimony of expert John Workman, contending, as they did in the use case, that he is not qualified. See supra II.C. We reject their contention for the same reasons articulated in part II.C. Id.
C. Federal Government Liability
Finally, we address the question of the United States' liability. We must decide whether the United States should bear any fiscal responsibility for the tragedy of these commons. The district court held that if the United States negligently failed to protect the JUA, the United States, together with the Navajo, would be jointly and severally liable for damages to the land. The district court concluded that the government was not negligent, stating that the Hopis failed to sustain their burden to show "that the damage to the HPL was caused by unreasonable government action or inaction."
The Hopi appealed that judgment, arguing that the district court erred by using negligence, rather than strict liability, as the standard for government liability. After oral argument in these appeals, the United States settled with the Hopi for $2,400,000, and the Hopi moved to abandon the portion of their appeal contesting the decision in favor of the government. We granted that motion, but allowed the Navajo to rely on the arguments in the Hopi briefs with regard to joint liability. Additionally, the Navajo contend that the United States should be exclusively liable.
 We agree with the district court that the government's behavior should be evaluated using reasonableness as the yardstick. The district court assessed government liability in accordance with the only available provision addressing damages to the land, S 640d-5(d).4 That section provides that the government will be liable for damages to the land if the government fails "to provide protection where such protection is or was required by law or by the demands of the trust relationship." Protections required by law are coterminous with those required by the trust relationship. See United States v. Mitchell, 463 U.S. 206, 224, 103 S.Ct. 2972 (1983) (statutory and regulatory provisions define contours of federal government's trust obligations when it assumes responsibility as a trustee for Indian lands); accord 25 C.F.R. 153.3 (1976) (regulations are promulgated to "carry out the Secretary's trust responsibility" over the JUA). Since the government's liability is predicated on trust obligations, it need take those protective measures that a reasonable or prudent trustee would take. Navajo Tribe v. United States, 9th Cir. 336, 400 (1986); Restatement, (Second) Trusts, S 176.
 The district court may well have erred in describing the appropriate standard as a negligence, or reasonable person standard, rather than a fiduciary, or reasonable trustee standard, but the Hopi have not argued that the district court measured the government's fault by the wrong standard. Rather, the Hopi ask that the government be held strictly liable, without regard to fault. We therefore hold that the district court did nor err in determining the government's liability using the reasonableness standard rather than a standard of strict liability. The Hopi do not challenge the findings as clearly erroneous. _________________________________________________________________
4 Section 640d-5(d) is an owelty provision. However, it also discusses the government's liability for the difference in value between the land "as is" at the time of partition and the land fully restored. That is, 640d-5(d) covers damages as well as owelty. The parties on appeal do not dispute the district court's reliance on this section.
We affirm the entire judgment of the district court in the use case. In the owelty case, we remand so that the district court may determine the amount of owelty, if any, due the Hopi based on the value of the land and the contributing value of improvements, and affirm in all other respects. In the damages case, we reverse the district court's decision not to credit the Hopi for lost opportunity on the seven vacant range units set aside for wildlife, but otherwise affirm the judgment.
AFFIRMED in part, REVERSED and REMANDED in part. Each party shall bear its own costs on appeal.
FLETCHER, Circuit Judge: Partial Concurrence and Partial Dissent
I concur substantially in the majority's opinion.
I respectfully dissent, however, from the majority's refusal to reverse the district court's holding that the United States is not liable for failure to protect the HPL from overgrazing prior to partition in 1979.
The majority concludes as do I that the district court applied the wrong standard in assessing the government's liability. The district court held the government to a negligence standard, holding the Hopi responsible for proof that "the damage to the HPL was caused by unreasonable government action or inaction," rather than to the duty of a reasonable trustee, who is under an affirmative duty "to the beneficiary to use reasonable care and skill to preserve the trust property." (Restatement (Second), Trusts,S 176(1959)) (emphasis added).
The government's obligation as trustee required it to take those protective measures that would have prevented the spo-
liation of the trust land by overgrazing--the very conduct by the Navajo that proper oversight by the government should have prevented. The government as trustee had affirmative duties of oversight--an obligation to investigate and to be informed and to act affirmatively to assure the protection of the grazing land--a fragile ecosystem--from overgrazing. The government's obligation, in short, was to prevent the Navajo from doing the very acts that imposed liability on the Navajo.
My disagreement stems from the majority's conclusion that despite the district court's error, its holding should stand because the Hopi have not challenged on appeal the district court's finding that the government acted reasonably.1 But that finding of reasonableness was in the context of the inappropriate negligence standard--what is reasonable conduct for a non-fiduciary is not necessarily reasonable conduct for a trustee since the trustee has an affirmative duty to protect and preserve the trust res. That is the very point the Hopi make: they assert that the government breached its fiduciary duty to protect the HPL from overgrazing. They offer the proof of the breach in the condition of the land, a condition directly traceable to the overgrazing.
"Reasonableness" as a standard is only meaningful when defined in context; a "reasonable" trustee must clearly do more than a "reasonable" person would to prevent the destruction of trust property.
I would therefore remand to the district court so that it could determine the government's liability by properly applying the reasonableness standard to which a trustee is held. Since the Hopi did not challenge the factual findings below as _________________________________________________________________ 1 After oral argument in these appeals, the United States settled with the Hopi for $2,400,000, and the Hopi moved to abandon this portion of their appeal. We granted that motion, but allowed the Navajo to rely on the Hopi's arguments with regard to joint liability.
clearly erroneous, whether the government fulfilled its obligations as trustee should be determined in light of those findings.
I do not ignore the fact that the relationship of the United States to the Navajo and the Hopi is unique. It owes trust duties to each; if it failed in its duties, its failures were to both (failure to protect the trust property to the detriment of the land and to both the Hopi and the Navajo; failure to oversee and impose proper controls on the grazing practices of the Navajo).
Upon remand, I would require the district court to determine and assess the government's liability and fiscal obligations and determine the effect, if any, on the amount owed to the Hopi by the Navajo.
Accordingly, I dissent.
Bob Dorman email@example.com "The Activist Page" http://www.plix.com/~users/redorman/
Big Mountain Information and Discussion Forum