"To Seek out that which was Lost..."


The word "Easter" in acts 12:4 of the King James Version is a mistranslation of the Greek pascha. All other translations have subsequently rendered it correctly as "Passover". The well-known Barnes Notes comments on this mistranslation in this single occurrence of the word "Easter" in the King James Version, as follows, "There was never a more absurd or unhappy translation than this." Not only is the name "Easter" incorrect, but also the time of the feast. No one would ever think of keeping his own birthday every year on the same day of the week. If I was born on a Sunday, I would not think of keeping my birthday on a Sunday every year. I will keep it according to the day of the yearly calendar and and not according to the day of the week. This is exactly what happened when Easter Sunday was instituted by Constantine's Church. The passover dispute between the Western Church and the more Scripture-adhering believers of the Near East was finally settled by Constantine's Council of Nicaea in the year 325, where it was decided that Easter was to be kept on Sun-day, and on the came Sun-day throughout the world and that "none should here-after follow the blindness of the Jews."58 Prior to that, Polycarp, the disciple of the Apostle John, had learned from the apostle himself that the 14th Abib was the Scriptural day of the year, which had been legislated in the Old Testament to determine the onset of the Passover, which Yahush˙a kept the night that He was betrayed. Polycarp, Polycrates, Apollinarius and others contended for the correct calculation of the Passover Memorial Supper (and the events following it), to be reckoned as beginning from the 14th Abib (Nisan). Now, with Constantine taking the lead, the Council of Nicaea decided to reject the Scriptural way of determining the correct date according to the yearly date, in favour of Easter Sun-day, according to a day of the week. Constantine exhorted all bishops to embrace "the practice which is observed at once in the city of Rome, and in Africa; throughout Italy, and in Egypt."59 Another fragment records that Constantine urged all Christians to follow the custom of "the ancient church of Rome and Alexandria."60

The case for the yearly Easter Sun-day was held in common with the case for the weekly Sun-day. Origen wrote, "The resurrection of the Master is celebrated not only once a year by constantly every eight days."61 Eusebius also stated, "While the Jews, faithful to Moses, sacrificed the Passover Lamb once a year ... we men of the New Covenant celebrate our Passover every Sunday."62 Pope Innocent I wrote, "We celebrate Sunday because of the Venerable resurrection ... not only at Easter but ... every Sunday."63 But wherefrom did this Easter Sun-day originate? Any encyclopaedia or dictionary, such as The Oxford English Dictionary, will supply the answer: Easter had a pre-Christian origin, namely a festival in honour of Eostre, the Teutonic dawn-goddess, and as Usha or Ushas, the Hindu dawn-goddess. This Eostre was also known to be the spring goddess and the goddess of fertility. Thus, another form of Sun-worship, another variant in the form of a dawn-deity, Eostre, also called Eastre, Eostra or Orstara,64 became fused with Christianity. This same dawn-goddess was also well known in the Greek Classics (Homer, Hesiod) as Eos (the Roman Aurora) and the Assyrian Ishtar, goddess of the morning. In classical mythology Eos was an amorous deity and the idea of fertility with its fertility-symbols of eggs and rabbits was to be expected. Any reference work will testify to the fact of the origin of Easter eggs and the Easter rabbit or bunny, because "Easter" was not only goddess of dawn but also goddess of spring with all its fertility-symbols and fertility-rites. This word Eos, Eostre, Ostara, is related64 to the Sanskrit and Vedic usra or ushas, the Zendic ushastara and the Lithuanian Ausra, the old Teutonic austron, and the male spring or dawn deity of the Norwegians, Austri, of which we read in the Edda. Most likely this Eostre, dawn deity/fertility deity, is the same as Astarte, which is recorded in the Hebrew of the Old Testament as Ashtaroth and Ashtoreth (the latter being changed because of deliberate Hebrew misvocalisation).65 The name of Astarte was Ishtar in Nineve. She was also known as the "queen of heaven".

Let us further examine the festival of this dawn - or spring-deity. Just like Eostre, the dawn-diety of the Germanic tribes, we find Eos, the dawn-deity of the Greeks, who, although married to Tithonus, was consistently faithless to him, which accounts for the blush of dawn.66 She was known to be the sister of Helios, the Sun-deity, and represented in sculpture with radiant sun-rays around her head.67 Similarly, and probably the same origin of this Eos and Eostre, we find in Hindu mythology the goddess of dawn to be Ushas, daughter of Heaven.68 Other spring festivals were celebrated, with the rites of Adonis or of Tammuz (well known as the youthful Sun-deity) which were held in summer in some places, but held in spring in others, such as in Sicily and Syria, our dead and risen Annointed One being assimilated to the pagan celebration of the dead and risen Adonis (Tammuz). This "weeping for Tammuz" is exactly what Yah˙weh included amongst His verdict of "wicked abominations", as we read in Eze. 8:9 and 14 Rev. Alexander Hislop comments on this fusion of the Scriptural Passover Memorial (and the events following it in the New Testament) with that of the pagan spring celebrations: "To consiliate the pagans to nominal Christianity, Rome, pursuing its usual policy, took measures to get Christian and pagan festivals amalgamated, and, by a complicated but skilful adjustment of the calendar, it was found no difficult matter, in general, to get paganism and Christianity - now far sunk in idolatry - in this as in so many other things, to shake hands."69 Sir James Fazer similarly comments, "When we reflect how often the Church has skilfully contrived to plant the seeds of the new faith on the old stock of paganism, we may surmise that the Easter celebration of the dead and risen The Annointed One was grafted upon a similar celebration of the dead and risen Adonis ... Taken altogether, the coincidences of the Christian with the heathen festivals are too close and too numerous to be accidental. They mark the compromise which the Church in the hour of its triumph was compelled to make with its vanquished yet still dangerous rivals."70 Adonis was known also as the Phrygian Attes, Attis, Atys.71 Attis was beloved by Cybele, the "Mother of the Gods", the great Asiatic goddess of fertility, who had her chief home in Phrygia. Some held that attis was her son. The worship of Attis and Cybele was adopted in 204 B.C.E. by the Romans where the great spring festival in their honour became well known. This festival lasted from the 22nd to the 25th of March, the last day, when the mourning was turned to joy fro the resurrection of the dead Attis. Attis was also identified with the Sun.72 The 25th March was regarded as the vernal (spring) eqinox, and we can easily see how the pagan worshippers of many different pagan religions were reconciled with the Messianic Faith, by means of assimilating a similar commemoration, but which had a different date, according to the day of the year, and not according to the day of the week, the Sun-day. Easter Sun-day, year after year. This was the decision taken by the Council of Nicaea.

Furthermore, not only was the time of the Scriptural feast supplanted by the pagan day's date, but also the rites of the pagan Easter took over, namely the fertility pagan symbols of Easter eggs and Easter rabbits (bunnies), and also the Easter buns, the hot-cross buns. The "buns", known by the identical name boun, were used in the worship of the Queen of heaven already 1500 years before the Christian era.73 They were also known amongst the Teutonic tribes as osterstuopha and moon-shaped ostermane.74 The Mighty One warns His people against this "abomination", as He called it in Jer. 7:10, and as is described in Jer. 7:18. Even the round shape of them with the cross on top represents exactly the very ancient symbol of the sun, namely the cross with a circle around it.75 this was especially known to be the symbol of the Babylonian Sun-deity. The circled cross was also later found on a coin of Julius Caesar, 100-44 B.C.E., and subsequently on coins struck by Caesar's heir, Agustus subsequently on coins struck by Caesar's heir, Aufustus 20 B.C.E., and by Hadrian and other Roman emperors.76

How then were these things ever permitted to enter in? In an attempt to justify this, the Church uses the term "Christianisation". The adoption of these pagan emblems of Easter eggs, Easter rabbits and Easter buns, are explained by The Catholic Encyclopedia, "a great many pagan customs celebrating the return of spring, gravitated to Easter ... The rabbit is a pagan symbol and has always been an emblem of fertility."77 This is in direct contrast to the Word of Yah˙weh in Jer. 10:2, "Do not learn the way of the Gentiles," and in Deut. 12:30, "do not inquire after their mighty ones, saying, 'How did these nations serve their mighty ones? I also will do likewise.'" Israel was commanded to keep the worship pure and undefiled by destroying everything pertaining to pagan worship, even to destroy the names of the pagan deities (Deut. 12:3), and not even to "mention the names of other mighty ones, nor let it be heard from your mouth," Ex.23:13. The whole subject of Easter, its Sun-day - emphasising date, and its pagan emblems and rites, such as Easter sunrise services, is crowned by the general admission that the word "Easter" is derived from the name of a goddess, the dawn-goddess, the spring-deity, the goddess of fertility.

Let us rather commemorate Yahush˙a's Memorial Passover and the subsequent happenings according to the Scriptural calendar, starting on the evening of 14 Abib, and repent of, and eliminate the pagan Easter festival.


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