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MATTHEW 13:44


CHAPTER VIII

    As Jacob and his family journeyed toward Luz which he had renamed Bethel (Chapter VI), they felt the sheltering protection of Elohim, for no one pursued them. At Bethel they built an altar which they dedicated to "the Elohim of the House of El" and called it El-Beth-El. Thereupon Elohim appeared to him and blessed him:

And Elohim said unto him, thy name is Jacob (supplanter): thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel (Prince of El) shall be thy name: and He called his name Israel. And Elohim said unto him, I am El-Shaddai (Almighty): be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee and kings shall come out of thy loins, and the land which I gave Abraham and Isaac, to thee I will give it, and to thy seed after thee will I give the land (Genesis 35:10-12 ).

This blessing by the Almighty is particularly significant. In it He recognized Jacob's conversion and changed his name accordingly. He also confirmed the promises previously made to Abraham and Isaac, and referred to three separate and distinct groups: "a company of nations", "a nation" and "kings".

    Jacob did not doubt this staggering promise and in accepting it he consecrated again the stone he had set up when Elohim first appeared to him in Bethel (Supra Chapter VI Genesis 35:14).

    From Bethel, Jacob and his family journeyed to Mamre. As they approached Ephrath, Rachel gave birth to Ben-jamin (son of my right hand) and died in childbirth. After burying her at Bethlehem the family traveled to Isaac's home at Hebron and settled there. Perhaps Israel expected to spend the closing days of his life in peace at Hebron, but he soon found that more trouble was in store for him. It was Yahweh's purpose to separate Israel and his family from the people of the land for He did not want them to mix with the Canaanites, who would involve them in detestable vices.

    It was not long until the children of Leah and the two concubines, Bilhah and Zilpah, became jealous of Joseph because Israel showed a preference for the son of his beloved Rachel, and they conspired to kill him. Judah however, persuaded his brothers not to murder Joseph but to sell him to a commercial company of Ishmaelites, who traded between Gilead and Egypt. So, they sold him for twenty pieces of silver (Genesis 37:27-28).

    The merchants in turn sold Joseph in Egypt. It is not necessary for us to go into detail here concerning the remarkable experiences of Joseph in Egypt. These are recounted in Genesis, chapters 39 through 50. It is enough for our purpose that Joseph became Prime Minister of Egypt and at the proper moment identified himself to his brothers and that word went back to Israel, his aged father, that his beloved Joseph was still alive. Israel rejoiced and his spirit revived within him and he said,

"It is enough; Joseph, my son is yet alive. I will go and see him before I die" (Genesis 45:28)

Joseph then sent wagons to move Israel and all his sons and their families and their household effects. So. Israel and his children, "their cattle and their goods" set out for Egypt to join the long-lost Joseph.

    Meanwhile, Joseph was successful in obtaining from Pharaoh a small section of Egypt known as Goshen, for the use of his kinsmen during their stay in Egypt. There they settled. Peace had come to Israel; the last 17 years of his life were spent there in quiet retirement. But when he realized that he was about to die, he sent for Joseph and exacted a promise to bury him in the cave of Machpelah along with his father, Isaac, in the land of Canaan. In this he demonstrated his faith in the promises of Elohim that he should possess the land of Canaan, both for himself and for his seed. Having been reassured by Joseph that he would not allow his father's body to remain in Egypt but would return it to Palestine, Israel adopted Joseph's two sons so that Joseph's descendants would receive twice the inheritance of any other son. Israel then summoned his sons and said

Gather yourselves together that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days. Gather yourselves together and hear, ye sons of Jacob; and hearken unto Israel, your father (Genesis 49 :1-2) .

The words which he uttered mingled blessings and predictions. In his prophetic vision the curtain of the future seemed to roll back giving Jacob an outline of the history which his seed would trace down the course of time. In his predictions he indicated not only their future history but also their future characteristics which are to be in full evidence "in the last days". If we understand the words "last days" to mean the closing of the Age, then the last days still lie in the future.

    In Israel's deathbed prophecy he foretold the destiny of the descendants of each of his sons and two grandsons (adopted as sons) These predictions may have mystified the family gathering, but to us some 3500 years later they seem remarkably clear as we see what is happening and as we look back on what has happened. The descendants of each of these sons are today found to possess those characteristics enumerated by Israel. These prophecies will be further considered in a later chapter.

    During Joseph's lifetime the children of Israel enjoyed the special privileges which Joseph's prestige had secured for them. The Book of Genesis closes with Joseph's death in Egypt. Before he died he called his brothers to his bed side,

"And Joseph said unto his brethren, I die: and Elohim will surely visit you and bring you out of this land unto the land which He swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel saying, Elohim will surely visit you and you shall carry up my bones from hence"
(Genesis 50:24-25).

With Joseph gone and a new king of Egypt the situation of the Israelites changed.

"And now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we; Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass that when there falleth out any war, they join also our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land. Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharoah's treasure cities, Pithom and Ramases" (Exodus 1:8-11).

This enslavement sought to frustrate the plan of Yahweh for blessing His people.

"But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew, and they were grieved because of the children of Israel" (Exodus 1:2).

Nevertheless, as their slavery continued, the new generations of Israelites came to be almost as superstitious and pagan as their masters, having taken on many of the idolatrous practices of the Egyptians. And so, at Sinai when Moses returned with the Commandments engraved in stone the Israelites waiting for him, were even then engaged in breaking those same Laws. At times Yahweh felt like destroying the Israelites, but lest He do so, Moses was careful to remind Him that He was committed by unconditional promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. For their sake Yahweh withheld His anger, spared the Children of Israel and after forty years probation in the wilderness they were ready to proceed to the land of promise which was occupied by the descendants of Canaan. There again, they failed Yahweh and refused to obey His will, but He was merciful unto them out of all proportion to what they deserved.

After the death of Moses and his successor, Joshua the son of Nun,

. . . He gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet. And afterward they desired a king: And Yahweh gave unto them Saul the son of Kish a man of the tribe of Benjamin for a period of forty years. And when He had removed him, He raised up unto them David to be their king; to whom He also gave the testimony, and said, I have found David, the son of Jesse, a man after My own heart who shall fulfill all My will (Acts 13:20-22).

Solomon succeeded David; then the kingdom was divided during the reign of Solomon's son Rehoboam, when he insisted upon "taxation without representation" (I Kings 12; II Chronicles 10). Because of this issue, and because Yahweh had foreordained it, the ten northernmost tribes seceeded from the union of Israel, leaving only two, Judah and Benjamin, to whom the Bible refers as the "Kingdom of Judah", and whose descendants today are called "Jews". And Rehoboam went to Shechem: for to Shechem were all Israel come to make him king.

And it came to pass, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who was in Egypt, whither he had fled from the presence of Solomon the king, heard it, that Jeroboam returned out of Egypt.

And they sent and called-him. So Jeroboam and all Israel came and spake to Rehoboam, saying,
Thy father made our yoke grievous. now therefore ease somewhat the grievous servitude of thy father, and his heavy yoke that he put upon us, and we will serve thee.
And he said unto them, Come again unto me after three days. And the people departed.
And king Rehoboam took counsel with the old men that had stood before Solomon his father while he yet lived, saying, What counsel give ye me to return answer to this people?
And they spake unto him, saying, If thou be kind to this people, and please them, and speak good words to them, they will be thy servants for ever.
But he forsook the counsel which the old men gave him, and took counsel with young men that were brought up with him, that stood before him. And he said unto them, What advice give ye that we may return answer to this people, which have spoken to me, saying, Ease somewhat the yoke that thy father did put upon us?

 And the young men that were brought up with him spake unto him, saying, Thus shalt thou answer the people that spake unto thee, saying, Thy father made our yoke heavy, but make thou it somewhat lighter for us; thus shalt thou say unto them, My little finger shall be thicker than my father's loins. For whereas my father put a heavy yoke upon you, I will put more to your yoke: my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions. So Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam on the third day, as the king bade saying, Come again to me on the third day.

And the king answered them roughly; and king Rehoboam forsook the counsel of the old men, And answered them after the advice of the young men, saying, My father made your yoke heavy, but I will add thereto: my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
So the king hearkened not unto the people: for the cause was of Yahweh, that Elohim might perform His word, which He spake by the hand of Ahijah the Shilonite to Jeroboam the son of Nebat. And when all Israel saw that the king would not hearken unto them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? and we have none inheritance in the son of Jesse: every man to your tents, O Israel: and now, David, see to thine own house. So all Israel went to their tents. But as for the children of Israel that dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them.
Then king Rehoboam sent Hadoram that was over the tribute; and the children of Israel stoned him with stones, that he died. But king Rehoboam made speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem.
And Israel rebelled against the house of David unto this day (II Chronicles 10:1-19 ) .

    From this point on, the history of the two kingdoms took different courses. The Kingdom of Judah continued as an absolute monarchy with its capital at Jerusalem.

 

    The ten "seceeded" tribes took the name, "Kingdom of Israel", with their capital at Samaria. This northern kingdom was a despotic, unstable, monarchy "tempered by assassination". The tribe of Ephraim (Joseph's younger son) was the dominant, policy-making group. One of the Kings of the ten tribes, Ahab, married Jezebel (Jeze-Baal) the daughter of a neighboring king who was devoted to propagation of Baal worship. Ahab and Jezebel actually caused a temple of Baal to be built in Samaria. Jezebel thus became a symbol of subversion of the faith of Israel.

    Yahweh as a loving Father had shown, taught, exhorted and plead with all 12 tribes to follow righteousness. Now He was about to use another approach.

Hear ye the word of Elohim, O house of Jacob, and all the families of the house of Israel.
And I brought you into a plentiful country, to eat the fruit thereof and the goodness thereof, but when ye entered, ye defiled My land, and made Mine heritage an abomination. The priests said not, Where is Elohim? and they that handle the law knew Me not: the pastors also transgressed against Me, and the prophets prophesied by Baal, and walked after things that do not profit. Wherefore I will yet plead with you, saith Elohim, and with your children's children will I plead. (Jeremiah 2:4 and 7-9)

The two kingdoms, Judah and Israel, existed side-by-side from the time of their separation in 976 B. C. Meanwhile the Assyrian Empire to the north was becoming more and more of a threat to Israel's independence. The great Assyrian monarch, Ashur-nasur-pal (883-859 B.C.) inherited a government:

". . . weakened by the aggressions of the Arameans and other neighboring tribes, and he left it consolidated, strengthened, and fortified against attack, with the result that his son Shalmaneser II was enabled to extend still further the frontiers of the Assyrian Empire." -- Annals of the Kings of Assyria (lxxiii) published by the trustees of the British Museum.

    Assyria grew and built a ruthless fighting machine under Ashur-nasirpal II, Shalmaneser III (858-824 B.C.) and Tiglath Pileser (744-727 B.C.) who "overran the kingdom of Israel and deported many of the inhabitants as is stated in II Kings 15:29." (Finegan, in Light from the Ancient Past, Princeton 1946, page 173).

"That such a ruthless deportation of peoples in order to prevent their future rebellions was a usual feature of Tiglath Pileser's policy we know from other of his inscriptions. Elsewhere he says, for example,

"30,000 people I carried off from their cities and placed them in the province of the city of . . . 1,223 people I settled in the province of the land of Ulluba" (Ibid page 174).

    But it remained for his successors Shalmaneser V (726-722) and Sargon II to complete the destruction of the northern kingdom. Frequent quarrels continued between Judah and Israel, and sporadic fighting broke out from time to time as the southern kingdom (Judah) attempted to preserve the union of Israel and incidentally its own control over the whole twelve tribes. But this was not destined to happen. (For detailed accounts, see II Chronicles 13:1-6; I Kings 14:30; II Kings 16:5; I Kings 15:16-25; and II Chronicles 28).

In the twelfth year of Ahaz, king of Judah, Hoshea son of Elah began to reign in Samaria over Israel for nine years. And he did that which was evil in the sight of Yahweh, but not as the kings of Israel that were before him. Against him came Shalmaneser, king of Assyria; and Hoshea became his servant and rendered him tribute (II Kings 17:1-3).

    Thus, finally, came the end of the Kingdom of Israel as an independent nation, about 721 B.C. The Kingdom of Israel was allowed to exist temporarily as a puppet state, but was put under heavy taxation by the Assyrians. Two or three years later, Hoshea refused to pay the "reparations" or tribute money and tried to make a deal with Assyria's rival Mizraim (Egypt). The scheme failed, for we read:

And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea; for he had sent messengers to So, king of Egypt, and brought no tribute to the king of Assyria as he had done year by year: therefore the king of Assyria shut him up and bound him in prison. Then the king of Assyria came up through out all of the land and went up to Samaria and beseiged it three years. In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes (II Kings 17:4-6).

    In this 20th Century we have a great tendency to think that everything ancient was on a small scale and that wars, for example, were fought by a mere handful of people. We ought to remember that at the time of the Exodus, 700 years before this, the Israelites numbered some 600,000 fighting men, and a total population of about 2,500,000. Further evidence of the scope of military activity and of the size of Israel's population is given in II Chronicles 28 :8, which tells of the war between the states of Judah and Israel and of the taking of 200,000 prisoners of war at one time, who were brought to Israel as slave labor. Now, as we have just read, Shalmaneser " . . . Carried Israel away into Assyria." The Bible is not speaking of a small "token" kidnapping or the taking of a few hostages. In those days, conquering kings moved whole populations about as a means of control. We have had a modern parallel, though on a smaller scale, during World War II when Hitler and Mussolini shifted populations about in their conquered lands. The result of such moves is that people are so busy trying to adjust to their new surroundings, and so disorganized that they have no time or opportunity for organized revolt. For the same reasons, Russia at the present time is transplanting hundreds of thousands of skilled workers and design engineers from Czechoslovakia, East Germany and other puppet states to industrial cities beyond the Ural Mountains.

    Not only did Shalmaneser take many hundreds of thousands of able-bodied Israelites away into the "cities of the Medes", but to make sure that they would not be able to escape and return to their homes, he brought other strange populations from the middle east into Samaria to replace them and occupy their homes:

"The king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, Cuthah, and Ava and from Hamath, and placed them in Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they possessed Samaria and dwelt in the cities thereof." (II Kings 17-24)

    The descendants of these same Asiatic strangers were still in Samaria at the first coming of the Messiah, and although they had adopted some of the religious teachings of their Hebrew neighbors, their beliefs were a hodgepodge of truth and mythology. Hence they were deprecated by the Jews and this made the parable of the "good Samaritan" (Luke 10:30-37) particularly pointed. The "woman of Samaria" (John 4:9) to whom the Savior spoke was, in all likelihood, a descendant of the "men from Babylon, Cuthah, and from Ava and from Hamath." For, He said,

You worship you know not what; we know what we worship, for salvation is from the Jews (John 4.22).

    By the process of transplantation, the Israelites of the northern kingdom literally lost their previous identity as a nation;

"It was in the century after Ashurnasirpal that the position of the Hebrew nation became critical as a result of Assyrian expansion. After a series of diplomatic negotiations, Israel was attacked by Shalmaneser V, Samaria, its capital, was besieged for three years, and finally the entire ten tribes were carried away into captivity in Assyria where they completely lost their identity." ("The Fertile Crescent" page 27 published by the trustees of Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, 1944. Stronger type mine.)

    Various historians have noted that it is extremely difficult to disentangle the various Aryan tribes and races of this period, because they went under different names at different times. On this point see H. G. Wells, The New and Revised Outline of History, p. 302. Nevertheless several million people did not just disappear without a trace and it wasn't as though no one knew their whereabouts. We are told that Ezra, the Scribe, who lived some 200 years later, was the chronicler of II Kings 17:18-23 which states that Israel was still in Assyria in his time:

"So was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria unto this day . . ."

    Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian about 800 years later, in 80 A.D. wrote concerning the people of the northern kingdom as follows, in Book XI, Chapter V of Antiquities of the Jews,

". . . wherefore there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude and not to be estimated by numbers".

    While it was the intention of the Almighty to destroy the evil political and religious power of Israel, it was not His intention to destroy all of its people, only to reprove and chasten those who could be persuaded. The chaff (Psalm 1:4) would be discarded, but the grain would be saved.

Behold the eyes of Yahweh Elohim are upon the sinful kingdom, and I will destroy it from off the face of the earth; saving that I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob, saith Yahweh. For, lo, I will command and I will sift the house of Israel among all nations like as corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth. All the sinners of My people shall die by the sword, which say, The evil shall not overtake nor prevent us . . . (Amos 9:8-10).

     The prophet, Amos, spoke these words some 65 years before Shalmaneser invaded Samaria. Isaiah, also prophesied concerning Assyria and the ten tribes. Twenty years beforehand, he said:

O Assyrian, the rod of Mine anger, and the staff in their hand is Mine indignation. I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of My wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey and to tread them down like the mire of the streets . . . (Isaiah 10:5-6).

    But the Almighty has a purpose for everything. He used this strenuous means to bring about a change of heart in His people. Through it they learned to depend upon and do the will of the Holy One of Israel. For He had a tremendous task for them to perform:

And it shall come to pass in that day that the remnant of Israel, and such as are escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no more stay upon him that smote them, but he shall stay upon Yahweh, the Holy One of Israel, in truth (Isaiah 10:20-21).

When Yahweh's people depend upon Him, He blesses them and is merciful. Isaiah is speaking specifically of these Israelites in Isaiah 14 where he says,

For Yahweh will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel and set them in their own land.

This is a reaffirmation of II Samuel 7:10:

Moreover, I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more as beforetime . . ."

But to continue with Isaiah 14, after Yahweh has had mercy on Israel;

". . . strangers shall be joined with them and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob. And the people shall take them to their (appointed) place, and the house of Israel (ten tribes ) shall possess them in the land of Yahweh for servants and handmaids; and they shall take them captive whose captives they were; and they shall rule over their oppressors."

History confirms this prophecy. After the captives from Samaria had rested and adjusted to their new environment, they were to multiply greatly (Isaiah 49:19-21, 54:1-3), throw off the yoke, and take over the government of their captors. We should not therefore be surprised to read:

"Revolts culminating in 612 saw the end of the Assyrian Empire —The Persians a new element in oriental history— were an Iranian tribe that dominated the Middle East. They rapidly reestablished the vastly enlarged Assyrian empire." (N. Y. 1938 Met. Museum of Art, "A Guide to the Collections, Part I Ancient and Oriental Art", page 23, Stronger type mine.)

This "new element" was, quite naturally, made up of the millions of Israelites who had entrenched themselves and were awaiting the right moment to strike. H. G. Wells says,

A Semitic people from south-east Mesopotamia, the Chaldeans, combined with Aryan Medes and Persians from the north-east against Nineveh, and in 606 B.C.— (for now we are coming down to exact chronology) — took that city.

There was a division of the spoils of Assyria. A Median empire was set up on the north under Cyaxares. It included Nineveh, and its capital was Ecbatana. Eastward it reached to the borders of India. (Pocket History of the World, N. Y. 1941, Ch. XX, p. 85.)

It is worth noting that a daughter of Cyaxares was married to Nebuchadnezzar the Great of Babylon.

W. G. DeBurgh, in The Legacy of the Ancient World, Vol. I, p. 28 says:

". . . His (Esarhaddon's) death (668) was followed by the decay of Assyrian power; before the close of the century it succumbed to a coalition between the Medes and the Babylonians, who had regained their independence under Nabopolassar. With the fall of Nineveh (612) the empire of Assyria vanished from history; her records were soon buried beneath the Mesopotamian sand, till, in the nineteenth century of our era, Botta and Layard unearthed the stones that tell the story of her ferocity and her conquest."

Finegan tells us;

". . . in 612 B.C. the Babylonians, Medes, and Scythians all combined for the final and successful attack upon the Assyrian capital. The siege lasted from June to August, but eventually Nineveh fell and its last king, Sin-sharishkun, died. yet one more man, a certain Ashur-uballit II (c.612-c.606), reigned for a few years as king of Assyria in the western city of Haran, but this last capital of a great empire was also taken by the Scythians. Nineveh the Great had fallen. The destruction predicted by Zephaniah (2 :13-15) had taken place" (Op Cit. p. 184)

It seems to have escaped the attention of most historians that the Medes and Persians, a "new" "Aryan" (ShemAryan or Samarian ) force sprang to life from the very provinces to which the millions of the ten tribes had been deported 150 years before by Tiglath Pileser III, Shalmaneser V, and Sargon II. And if we were so blind as not to recognize the Medo-Persian Empire as Israel, Jeremiah has left us little room for doubt, for he prophesied that Israel would destroy Babylon (which of course they did under the assumed name of Medes and Persians). Moffat's Translation of Isaiah 14:1-6 is especially clear in this point:

The household of Israel shall be conducted to their place by outside nations, and they shall hold them as slaves in the land of the Eternal thus making captives of their former captors, and ruling over their oppressors. Then shall it be that the Eternal grants you relief from your agony and misery and the slavery you have had to suffer; You shall raise this taunt song against the King of Babylon, crying: How the tyrant is hushed and his mad rage hushed, the club of the godless, the Eternal has crushed, the rod of the oppression, that beat the nations in a passion, blow after blow, that enslaved races in a fury, and never let them go.

    The very tenor of the "taunting speech" indicates that those Medes were fully aware of the relationship existing between themselves and those of the Babylonian captivity, in spite of the fact that so far as history has been concerned they were known as Medes and Persians, and by other names adopted in the westward march toward their promised destinations (II Samuel 7:10; I Chronicles 17:9; Isaiah 41:1; Genesis 49; Deuteronomy 33). For further corroboration of this, let us read, in the 13th chapter of Isaiah, a description of the assault on Babylon:

"For I have charged my chosen host to execute my wrath, my heroes have I summoned, my men of martial pride. Hark! a din among the mountains as of a mighty host. Hark! 'tis the uproar of empires, nations gathering; for Yahweh of hosts is mustering a battle array." (Moffatt)

Notice especially in these verses "my chosen host" (Israel) —" to execute my wrath.... my heroes have I summoned, my men of martial pride." Jeremiah calls Israel Yahweh's "battle ax," Jeremiah 51:19-24; and, in the 11th and 28th verses of this same chapter, he actually refers to them by the name they bear in secular history, "Medes". Isaiah 13:17 also refers to these Medes; but these Medes are Israel, His battle axe with which He had promised to destroy Babylon. Jeremiah 51:19-20.

CHAPTER IX


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